Choice Research Associates
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"Our goal
is to help
clients create

Shawn M. Flower, Ph.D.
Principal and Founder, Choice Research Associates


Choice Research Associates utilizes a researcher-practitioner collaboration model called the Program Development Evaluation (PDE) method. The PDE method, developed by Dr. Gary Gottfredson, is a general method created to assist organizations in developing, implementing, and improving any type of program and is expected to increase both fidelity of implementation and eventual success at achieving stated goals.

The PDE evaluation process involves strategic planning, coordination, and facilitation among stakeholders to establish a process and protocols to ensure the provision of services and attainment of objectives. Services include facilitating a series of workshops with program stakeholders to develop the PDE plan, observation of program implementation, revision of existing forms and/or creation of new forms used by the program through development of databases (e.g., into optical scan format for efficient data collection, analysis and frequent (e.g., quarterly) reporting of process measures to track implementation fidelity, and analysis and reporting of outcomes of program effectiveness.

The PDE method incorporates 9 steps, strengthens the relationship between practitioner and researcher by creating a shared vision, a problem-solving orientation, a definition of roles and responsibilities, and ensuring ongoing communication.

Collaboration is crucial to the PDE method - none of these steps can be conducted in absentia by either the researcher or practitioner - from goals to objectives to theory to implementation - all require active participation of all parties to establish and periodically revise the evaluation plan.

Gottfredson, Gary D. (1984). A theory-ridden approach to program evaluation: A method for stimulating researcher-implementer collaboration. American Psychologist, Vol 39(10), 1101-1112. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.39.10.1101

Gottfredson, G. D., Rickert, D. E., Jr., Gottfredson, D. C. & Advani, N. (1984). Standards for program development evaluation. Psychological Documents, 14, 32. (Ms. No. 2668)

DOWNLOAD PDE Method Workshop Presentation

DOWNLOAD The Importance of Conducting Process Evaluations

DOWNLOAD Including Evaluation and Research in Grant Applications